BỘ PHIM “NỀN GIÁO DỤC CẤM ĐOÁN” – CHƯA TỪNG CÓ NHỮNG NỀN GIÁO DỤC TẠO RA CON NGƯỜI TỰ DO

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Bộ phim “Nền giáo dục cấm đoán” (La Educacion Prohibida) được sản xuất năm 2012 tại Arghentina, bởi đạo diễn Germán Doin là một bộ phim tài liệu với cái nhìn thẳng thắn về bản chất của mọi nền giáo dục. Lấy bối cảnh của nền giáo dục Arghentina, nhưng vấn đề của các nhà làm phim đặt ra lại mang tính toàn cầu.

Bộ phim nêu ra thực trạng rằng các trường học ngày nay không dậy cho học sinh, sinh viên các kiến thức hữu ích hay đạo đức, nhân phẩm, mà vốn dĩ chỉ là các trại trông trẻ, hay nói nặng nề hơn, là nhà tù. Trong nhà tù này, học sinh, sinh viên phải trải qua hết thời hạn, các quy trình đo đếm (điểm chác, tiêu chuẩn), và không được nói lên tiếng nói thật sự của mình…

Bên cạnh đó, nhà làm phim cho chúng ta nhìn thấy tiến trình phát triển của nền giáo dục: Ở Athen, giáo dục bắt buộc chỉ dành cho nô lệ; ở Sparta, giáo dục để đào tạo quân nhân phục vụ quân đội; trong thời Trung Cổ, giáo dục trở thành công cụ tuyên truyền của nhà thờ… Nền giáo dục thời Khai Sáng, được các nhà làm phim gọi tên một cách rất mỉa mai: “sự chuyên chế của Khai Sáng”, là thời điểm ý tưởng về “giáo dục phổ thông” bắt đầu “đại chúng, miễn phí và bắt buộc”. Bản chất của nền giáo dục Khai Sáng là ngăn chặn các cuộc nổi dậy giống như đã diễn ra ở Pháp ở thế kỷ 17,18, bằng cách tạo ra các đám đông biết vâng lời và dễ bảo. Mô hình giáo dục phổ thông này nhanh chóng lan từ Đức sang khắp Châu Âu và Châu Mỹ. Thậm chí khi đã được tư nhân hóa thì chính những tập đoàn lại lợi dụng trường học để tạo ra những “công nhân thông minh” cho mình. Cho đến nay, mô hình giáo dục phổ thông có từ thời “Khai Sáng” vẫn chi phối thế giới.

Người viết lời bình cho bộ phim này đã có một câu bình rất sâu sắc: “Dây chuyền sản xuất hàng loạt là một ví dụ cho nền giáo dục, giáo dục được áp đặt lên đứa trẻ có thể so sánh với quá trình sản xuất ra một sản phẩm, vì thế đòi hỏi các bước cụ thể và bắt buộc theo một trình tự cụ thể: Gom nhóm trẻ nhỏ theo độ tuổi và các cấp học. Và từng giai đoạn chúng sẽ làm việc với các môn học cụ thể, nội dung học được đảm bảo hiệu quả và được thiết lập kỹ lưỡng bởi một chuyên gia.” (Chuyên gia ấy chính là giáo viên)… Một trong số những nhân vật được phỏng vấn đã nhận định “Nhưng giáo dục không được thiết kế bởi các nhà khoa học,… nực cười thay, nó chẳng phải do các nhà giáo dục, mà thực ra là bởi đám quan lại và tay sai, những kẻ đéo bao giờ biết dạy học là như thế nào” hay “Giáo viên là công chức của bộ máy lãnh đạo, và họ phải nghe lời chủ: mày dạy thế này, cái nọ, cái kia và phải theo cách này”…Chúng ta có thể thấy, nền giáo dục phổ thông không tạo ra những con người tự do khi phải học cùng một thứ, học sinh – sinh viên bị đồng hóa với điểm số, bị đào tạo như trong nhà tù hoặc quân ngũ bằng các hồi chuông và các kỷ luật nghiêm ngặt. Bộ phim đã đưa ra một vấn đề sai lầm của mọi nền giáo dục, đặc biệt là giáo dục Khai Sáng, đó là giới hạn nền giáo dục ở trong khuôn khổ trường học.

Vậy làm thế nào để có một nền giáo dục phát triển con người một cách tự nhiên nhất. Điều này chỉ có thể đến từ việc tìm hiểu bản thể của con người, tiềm năng phát triển và độ tuổi phát lộ tài năng của mỗi cá nhân. Tuy nhiên, người lớn thường chẳng hiểu gì về trẻ con và cũng không thật sự quan sát chúng.

Các nhà làm phim cho rằng bản chất của con người là ham học hỏi. Trẻ con luôn mồm hỏi người lớn câu hỏi “Tại sao?”, chúng có đầy đủ óc lý luận, sự sáng tạo, trí tưởng tượng… nhưng trường học đã hủy hoại toàn bộ các khả năng này. Trẻ con có thể một cách rất tự nhiên, nhanh chóng nắm bắt các quy luật tự nhiên và thích ứng với môi trường xã hội, thậm chí là khả năng tự điều khiển bản thân mình. Xã hội thậm chí không cần đến trường học, chúng ta chỉ cần tạo dựng các môi trường để trẻ có thể phát triển tự nhiên. Đó sẽ là tương lai của nền giáo dục, nơi không có sự áp đặt chân lý, không có sự nhồi sọ, không có sự đánh giá, một môi trường được tạo dựng nên nền tảng của các cảm xúc tích cực chứ không phải bằng các hệ thống lý thuyết.

Mời các bạn xem bộ phim “Nền giáo dục cấm đoán”, bật nút CC để xem Phụ đề Tiếng Việt:

Chúng ta không chỉ chờ đợi những cuộc cải cách giáo dục nữa. Nhiệm vụ của chúng ta là phải tạo ra một cuộc Cách mạng trong giáo dục. Chúng ta cần thay thế mô hình giáo dục phổ thông của thời Khai Sáng bằng những mô hình nhân tính hơn, tự do hơn và thực tế hơn. Đã đến lúc các nhà giáo dục phải nghiêm túc nhận định rằng nhu cầu định hướng xã hội bằng cách định hướng tư tưởng của trẻ em là một sai lầm ngớ ngẩn. Họ phải chấp nhận xã hội là một thể phức tạp và hỗn độn, mỗi cá nhân là duy nhất, có trạng thái tâm lý, có mục tiêu, có tiền trình phát triển khác biệt.

Nguồn: bookhunterclub.com

 

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